Leukaemia can affect the eyes in different ways.

Leukaemic deposits can occur in:

  • the retina, to cause white nodules or sheathing around blood vessels
  • the anterior chamber to form a mass or aqueous cells, which settle to form a 'pseudohypopyon'(i.e, resembling pus)
  • the optic nerve, which becomes swollen.
  • orbit, to cause proptosis (i.e,. bulging eye).
  • conjunctiva.

Abnormalities of retinal blood cause:

  • haemorrhages
  • tortuosity of the blood vessels because of the increased viscosity.

Opportunistic infections can arise because of immune deficiency, the most common being:

  • Cytomegalovirus
  • Toxoplasmosis
  • Aspergillus