Conjunctival carcinoma

Conjunctival carcinoma is a rare cancer arising from squamous cells of the conjunctiva. Causes include sunlight, human papilloma virus and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).


Conjunctival carcinoma is also referred to as 'ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN)' and described as 'carcinoma in situ' if confined to the epithelium and 'invasive carcinoma' if spreading to the deeper tissues.


Without timely treatment, conjunctival carcinoma can spread deeply into the orbit and the eye. It can also metastasize to regional lymph nodes in the neck ('glands') and more widely, with a fatal outcome.